The bridge that links Galaxies

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What is it? For the first time, scientists have detected evidence of a magnetic field that's associated with the vast intergalactic 'bridge' that links our two nearest galactic neighbors. This bridge is known as Magellanic Bridge What is so cool about it? The bridge is a huge stream of neutral gas and has some known stars in it. It stretches some 75,000 light-years between our two neighboring galaxies, the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC). Why did it take so long to find it? The reason we've struggled to study this structure in the past is the fact that these types of cosmic magnetic fields can only be observed indirectly through their effect on other structures in space. How was it discovered? Radio signals from distant galaxies were used to pick up the magnetic field associated with the Magellanic Bridge. When these radio signals pass through a magnetic field, that plane is rotated, allowing astronomers to the measure the strength and polarity (direction) of the field. How did it come to be? Two of the leading options are that the magnetic field was generated from within the bridge after the structure formed, or it may have been 'ripped' from the dwarf galaxies and merged to form the bridge. Grazpp the Fact LMC and SMC are 160,000 and 200,000 light-years from Earth respectively-visible in the southern night sky. Most of space is made up of different magnetic fields - entire galaxies and even faint delicate threads joining galaxies are magnetic Understanding how LMC, SMC evolve may help us understand how our Milky Way Galaxy will evolve.

Why do some seas fall while other rises?

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What’s new? Global warming causes the sea level to rise every year. But researchers studying the seas around India have noted a paradox. From 1993 to 2003 the North Indian Ocean (NIO) sea level fell even when the global temperature soared. After which in 2004, sea levels began an unprecedented, accelerated spike till 2014. The scientist says this decadal swing is a phenomenon unique to the NIO as they have never been observed in either the Pacific or Atlantic oceans. In spite of the rapid, rise in temperatures, there are assumptions that the coming decades will see another fall in sea levels. More details please? Mr. Ravichandran, the lead author of National centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research, and his colleagues relied on satellite observations and a global network of floats, which log temperature and salinity, to arrive at their findings. According to this the NIO went down about 0.3 mm a year and from 2004 gained about 6 mm annually. When temperature and sea level trends in the NIO were mathematically separated out from the other oceans, the fall was even more dramatic: nearly 3 mm per year and the Arabian Sea cooling off rapidly at 4 mm per year. What causes the fall? Sea levels rises, when atmospheric heat causes water to expand and because of phenomenon like melting of ice sheets and glaciers. In the case of NIO, 70% of its warming could be explained by expansion. The NIO, Unlike the Pacific and Atlantic, is hemmed by the Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal and part of the Indian Ocean on all sides except for an outlet on the southern side. This influenced the rate at which heat was absorbed and flushed out from within. The change in the direction of wind flows, which welled warm water on the Indian Ocean surface also probably influenced sea level patterns. The wind flows changes directions every decade. Do all scientists believe this to be true? A Previous study that measured ocean heights based on traditional tide gauges found that NIO, like the rest of the world’s seas was continuously rising between 1993 and 200. But Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reports concluded that unabated greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere would cause oceans to rise every year. But there would also be years during which some seas could register a fall.

New form of Hydrogen discovered

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What is Hydrogen? Hydrogen is a chemical element with the symbol H and atomic number ‘1’ with just one proton and one electron. We’re all pretty well acquainted with hydrogen that makes up 75 % of all the mass in the Universe, and more than 90 % of all the atoms   Unsolved mystery of Hydrogen Physicists confirmed the existence of hydrogen ion clusters some 40 years ago, and while a negative counterpart to these clusters boasting large numbers of atoms were theorised, no one could figure out how to create one.   Who found the new form of Hydrogen? A team of physicists led by Michael Renzler from the University of Innsbruck in Austria have just created a never-before-seen form of hydrogen - negatively charged hydrogen clusters. Discovery They injected cold liquid helium droplets with hydrogen (H2) molecules.         This caused the mixture to form clusters with a neutral charge. These H2-infused droplets to an electron beam, and that caused some of the hydrogen molecules to ionise, and be flung out into the surrounding vacuum as negatively charged hydrogen ions. Soon, nearby hydrogen molecules started clustering around the negatively charged ions, and the researchers discovered that these newly formed groups could boast a few, or many molecules each. Process These negatively charged hydrogen clusters existed only for an incredibly fleeting moment - several microseconds (1 microsecond = 0.000001 seconds).But that was enough time for the team to determine their geometric structures. The researchers found that the clusters only had odd atom numbers, ranging from n= 5 to n = 129. The most stable clusters had a central, negatively charged H−ion core sounded by shells that were completely filled up by hydrogen molecules. Finally The odd values implied that the clusters were a combination of several H2 molecules and a single H−ion core, held together through an induced dipole attraction The most commonly recorded clusters had the atomic numbers n = 25, n = 65, and n = 89. Now that we know that negatively charged hydrogen clusters aren't impossible, and what their most common and stable form could be, it could make it easier to identify them in nature for the time.